Ambitions and Limits: The Deepening Security Dialogue Between Japan and the European Union

The European Union and Japan are increasing their exchanges on security issues and have the ambition to expand possible areas of cooperation despite limitations. The joint statement published at the end of the EU-Japan summit in 2023 lists a series of important domains including economic security, cyber threats, human security but also maritime security. This resolution results from a convergence of threat perception regarding the role of China and of Russia. The US factor also plays a role regarding the uncertainties of Washington’s future engagement in Europe but also in Asia. Despite these evolutions, and ambitious declarations regarding a future security and defence cooperation agreement, limitations in the role both Japan and the EU can play in terms of hard security must be taken into account.