The war in Ukraine is forcing Europe to develop its own nuclear deterrence

As Russia suffers severe setbacks and Ukraine’s counter-offensive moves on, concerns over Russian President Vladimir Putin’s next move continue. He does not seem to have many options, and even the possible use of nuclear weapons is not completely off the table.

Although Russian military efforts have been in decline since the war’s early days, the possibility still exists that Russia might use its nuclear arsenal in Ukraine in order to stop Western military support for Kyiv and to give Russia the psychological upper hand.

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